What is the function of Quartz Crystal Resonator in an Oscillation circuit?
Few tips for oscillating circuit design
The function of quartz crystal resonator is locking and determines the oscillation frequency of an oscillating circuit which is widely used in electronic industrial. Proper circuit design and components configure is crucial to the stability of oscillating circuit with quartz crystal resonator overtime.
How can we know the oscillating circuit using crystal resonator is proper designed? What shall hardware engineers consider? Interquip Electronics, manufacturer of quartz crystal resonators and oscillators, would like to share some basic tips:
- Negative Resistance
- Drive Level
- On board oscillating frequency
Negative resistance (-R) is a parameter of an oscillating circuit that determined by the gain and terminated capacitances which shall be large enough to ensure a reliable oscillation.
According to the basic rule, the negative feedback loop gain of an oscillation circuit shall be greater than 1 to sustain an oscillation. |-R| divided by Rr represent the negative gain of the oscillating circuit approximately. The recommendations from IEC60444-6 is |-R| / Rr shall be greater than or equal to 3 for reliable oscillation and Rr shall be the maximum Rr in all circumstances. Interquip Electronics recommends 5 times or more which has a better design margin.
The Drive Level of the oscillation circuit
Quartz crystal resonator is a piezoelectric device. The piezoelectric effect provides a coupling between the mechanical properties of a piezoelectric crystal and an electrical circuit. Below is the bulk acoustic wave mode of an AT cut quartz crystal resonator,
The mechanical displacement is proportional to the drive level (power) applied. It induces stress and cause irreversible damage over time in some circumstance if the drive level is extreme large. 1uW to 100uW is recommended for AT cut Mhz quartz crystal resonator in general.
The drive level is equal to,
RL: Load resistance, which is equal to Rr(1+C0/CL)²
Ix: the current go thru the quartz crystal resonator
C0: Shunt capacitance of quartz crystal resonator
CL: equivalent load capacitance
Ix is the current go thru the quartz crystal resonator which could be measured using a high-frequency current probe.
On board oscillation frequency
The on board oscillating frequency is determined by the quartz crystal resonator characteristic and the on board equivalent load capacitance. The on board equivalent load capacitance CPCB is related to Cg/Cd, terminal capacitance of the integrated circuit (CIC)and stray capacitance (Cs) on board as below:
CPCB= (Cg + CIC)×(Cd + CIC)/(Cg + Cd + 2 x CIC) + Cs
The quartz crystal resonator frequency is load capacitance (CL) depended. It is tuned by the manufacturer to the desired tolerance per specification. The on board oscillating frequency shall be within the frequency tolerance when the on board equivalent load capacitance is same as the CL specification of quartz crystal resonator. Otherwise, the on board oscillating frequency will deviate from the nominal frequency. If that happen, adjust Cg and Cd when necessary.
In addition, it shall be caution when measuring the on board oscillating frequency. The probe capacitance could be part of the on board equivalent load capacitance that contribute measurement error. A non-contact measurement using spectrum analyzer or equivalent is recommended.
In short, engineers shall verify the negative resistance of the oscillating circuit, the drive level and on-board oscillating frequency when the design of the oscillation circuit is determined. Adjust the circuit component to optimize the performance and lower the risk when necessary. Please feel free to contact Interquip Electronics if there is any question. You are always welcome.
Interquip Electronics is a comprehensive high-tech enterprise in R&D, manufacturing and marketing high precision Quartz Crystal Resonators (including self-developed material SMCM series, Thermistor Crystals and 32.768KHz Tuning Fork Crystals) and Oscillators (including TCXO, VCXO, LVDS/LVPECL output waveform SPXO, programmable Oscillators etc.). The size of crystal resonators and oscillators ranges from 1.2 x 1.0mm to 5.0 x3.2mm package, frequency available from 32.768KHz to 200MHz. The frequency components produced can be widely applied in 5G Smart Home, Smart Wear, IoT, IoV, Consumer Electronics, Telemedicine, Automotive Electronics (conforms to AEC-Q200), Communication Industry, Security Applications, Industrial Equipment and other industries.
Interquip Electronics Contact Information
Tel: +852 2413 5515
Fax: +852 2413 7053
Hong Kong Office: Flat A, 9th Floor, On Shing Industrial Building, 2-16 Wo Liu Hang Road, Fotan, N.T, Hong Kong SAR.
Factory Address: East of Bianxi River, South of Innovative Avenue, EBu Town, Shenshan Special Cooperation Zone, Shenzhen, Guangdong, China. 518200